Week 1-3 (reading Academic Texts) - ID:5c19d05b6c406 (2023)




At the end of the lesson students should be able to:

A. Determine the structure of a specific academic text


B. References: From Hand to Mouth by Michael C. Corballis (English for
Academic and Professional Purposes (DepEd Copy)), Communicate
Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High
School by Jessie Saraza Barrot, PhD and Philippe John Fresnillo Sipacio

C. Teaching Materials: Power Point Presentation, Projector, Texts


A. Activity

1. Students will be grouped into 5

2. The teacher will read passages from different texts.

 There are 10 persons died in the accident last June 10,
2017 at Brgy Malayantok, Science City of Muñoz Nueva
 The warrior saved to a princess and they live happily ever
 Cinderella left her shoes in the party and the princes kept
looking for her

3. The students will identify if the text came from a publication or a
fictional story. The group who’ll get the most number of scores will win.

B. Analysis

Structure of Academic Text

Academic texts are typically formal. They have clearly structured
introduction, body and conclusion. They include information from credible

sources which are, in turn, properly cited. They also include list of references
used in developing the academic paper.

C. Abstraction

The teacher will ask the students to read the text entitled From Hand to
Mouth by Michael C. Corballis (English for Academic and Professional
Purposes (DepEd Copy)),.

The students will do the Pop-Corn Reading. (One students will be called
to start reading the text, when the teacher said stop the student will stop
reading and another student will be called to continue the reading exactly
where his/her classmate stopped)

D. Application

The teacher will let the students identify the parts of an academic text
in the ‘From Hand to Mouth by Michael C. Corbalis’

IV. Evaluation

Based on their previous groups, the students will be asked to go to the
library by group and find one academic text for 7minutes. After the given
time each group will pick a number in choosing what academic text will they
analyze to identify the academic parts. Each group will be given 10 minutes
for evaluating the text and 3 minutes each for the presentation.

V. Assignment

Find one academic text (students may copy it, photocopy or cut).
Paste it on your notebook and identify the parts of the text.

VI. Reflection

Students will answer the following questions:

1. What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up
this lesson?

2. What new or additional learning have you had after taking up this
lesson in terms of skills, content and attitude?

From Hand to Mouth

By Michael C. Corballis

(1) Imagine trying to teach a child to talk without using your hands or any
other means of pointing of gesturing. The task would surely be impossible.
There can be little doubt that bodily gestures are involved in the
development of language, both in the individual and in the species. Yet,
once the system is up and running, it can function entirely on vocalizations, as
when two friends chat over the phone and create in each other’s minds a
world of events far removed from the actual sounds that emerge from their
lips. My contention is that the vocal element emerged relatively late in
hominid evolution. If the modern chimpanzee is to be our guide, the
common ancestor of 5 or 6 million years ago would have been utterly
incapable of a telephone conversation but would have been able to make
voluntary movements of hands and face that could the least serve as a
platform upon which to build a language.

(2) Evidence suggests that the vocal machinery necessary for autonomous
speech developed quite recently in hominid evolution. Grammatical
language may well have begun to emerge around 2 million years ago but
would at first have been primary gestural, though no doubt punctuated with
grunts and other vocal cries that were at first largely involuntary and
emotional. The complex adjustments necessary to produce speech as we
know it today would have taken some time to evolve, and may not have
been complete until some 170,000 years ago, or even later, when Homo
sapiens emerged to grace, but more often disgrace, the planet. These
adjustments may have been incomplete even in our close relatives the
Neanderthals; arguably, it was this failure that contributed to their demise.

(3) The question now is what were the selective pressures that led to the
eventual dominance of speech? On the face of it, an acoustic medium
seems a poor way to convey information about the world; not for nothing is it
said that a picture is worth a thousand words. Moreover, signed language
has all the lexical and grammatical complexity of spoken language. Primate
evolution is itself a testimony to the primacy of the visual world. We share with
monkeys a highly sophisticated visual system, giving us three- dimension
information in colour about us, and an intricate system for exploring that
world through movement and manipulation. Further, in a hunter- gatherer
environment, where predators and prey are major concern, there are surely.

cheetahs. In fact. lynxes. language evolved as a system of gestures based on movements of the hands.and noisy. including movements of the mouth. The shortening of words overtime also makes communication more efficient. The fact that more frequent words tends to be shorter than less frequent ones was noted by the American philologist George Kingsley Zipf.advantages in silent communication since sound acts as a general alert. at first as mere grunts. microphone has been reduced to mike (or mic). lips. (5) What. to one in which the vocal component has a much more extensive repertoire and is under voluntary control. are rather different. (4) Before we consider the pressures that may have favoured vocalization over gestures. It has also been proposed that speech itself is in many respects better conceived as composed of gestures rather than sequences of these elusive phantoms called phonemes. Except in rare cases of onomatopoeia. even as fluent speakers gesture almost as much as they vocalize. The essential feature of modern expressive language is not that it is purely vocal. tigers. who related it to a principle . but rather that the component can function autonomously and provide the grammar as well as meaning of linguistics communication. We may be confused as to which animals is which. then. In this view. and they therefore offer scope for creating symbols that distinguish between object or actions that look alike or might otherwise be confusable. and so on. are the advantages of a language that can operate autonomously through voice and ear. rather than hand and eye? Why speech? Advantages of Arbitrary Symbols (6) One possible advantage of vocal language is its arbitrariness. bur at least it is clear which one we are talking about. There may therefore have been continuity from the language that was almost exclusively manual and facial. It would not have been a big steps to add voicing to the gestural repertoire. and some of us have been around long enough to see this happen: television has become TV or telly. it bears repeating that the switch from hand to mouth was almost certainly not an abrupt one. manual gestures still feature prominently in language. spoken words cannot be iconic. The names of similar animals. and tongue. and of course deaf communities spontaneously develop signed language. arms and face. and leopards. though perhaps punctuated by involuntary grunts. And yet we came to communicate about the world in a medium that in all primates except ourselves is primitive and stereotyped. such as cats. but later articulated so that invisible gestures of the oral cavity could rendered accessible. but to the ear rather than the eye. lions.

(9) I would be on dangerous ground. (7) It may well have been very important for hunter-gatherers to identify and name a great many similar fruits. (8) In the naming and transmission of such detailed information.” So long as signs are based on iconic resemblance. and plants. These people are illiterate. and raids from other tribes. and animals that attack confused with those that are benign. It is nevertheless true that many signs remain iconic. ones acquired. knowledgeable granny may help us all live a little longer. Especially in initial stages of acquisition. Diamond suggests that the main repository of accumulated information is elderly.of “least effort. plants. and so provide a ready-made system for abstraction. Signed language may easier to learn than spoken ones. the signer has little scope for these kinds of calibration. After all. cyclones. This is not to say that gestural signs could not to do the trick. But spoken languages. signed language apparently functions well right through to university level. if I were to insist too strongly that speech is linguistically superior to signed language. iconic representation would almost certainly be inefficient: edible plants or berries could be confused with poisonous ones. and attempts at iconic representation would eventually only confuse. droughts. Manual signs readily become conventionalized and convey abstract information.off here. Nevertheless. however. in which the child comes to understand the linking of objects and the action with their linguistic representations. and so on. and she can also look after the kids. not only about potential foods. relying on word of mouth to pass on information.and still requires students to learn lots of vocabulary from their suitably elderly professor. Jared Diamond observes that the people living largely traditional lifestyle in New Guinea can name hundreds of birds. since they have virtually no iconic content to begin with. A slowing down of senescence may well have been selected in evolution because the knowledge retained by the elderly enhanced the survival of their younger relatives. well beyond the age of child bearing (although perhaps it was not always so). since spoken words are better calibrated to minimize . He points out that humans are unique among primates in that they can expect to live to a ripe old age. or at least partially so and are therefore somewhat tethered with respect to modifications that might enhance clarity or efficiency of expression. trees. An elderly. may relay messages more accurately. there may be some advantage to using spoken words. animals. along with details about each of them. birds. such as crop failures. But there may well be a trade. animals. students at Gallaudet University seem pretty unrestricted in what they can learn. but also about how to survive dangers.

And sometimes. and is therefore ineffective when no such source is available. And the light reflected from the surface of an object to your eye travels in rigidly straight lines. the iconic component is often important. as when you yell to your friend in another room. (11) It is not only a question of being able to communicate at night. Perhaps it was the newfound ability to communicate vocally. of course. people resort to signing. In The Dark (10) Another advantage of speech over gesture is obvious: we can use it in the dark! This enables us to communicate at night. Even so. In terms of the sheer ability to reach those with whom you are trying to communicate. though: it is generally accessible to those around you and is therefore less convenient for sending confidential or secret messages or for planning an attack on enemies within earshot. All this has to do. having migrated out of Africa into territories inhabited by other hominins who migrated earlier. countrymen. We can also speak to people when objects intervene and you can’t see them. Vision.” he was trying to attract attention as well as deliver a message. on the other hand. the alerting component of language might have consisted at first simply of grunt that accompany gestures to give . words speak louder than actions. and as I look the quadrangles outside my office I see how freely the students there are embellishing their conversations with manual gestures. lend me ears. and so vanquish the earlier migrants. We of the gentle species Homo sapiens have a legacy of invasion. To some extent. Romans. we can overcome this impediment by whispering. depends on light reflected from an external source. which means that it can provide detailed information about shape but is susceptible to occlusion and interference. “Friends. such as the sun. (13) In the evolution of speech.confusion. which travels equally well in the dark as in the light and wiggles its way around obstacles. with the nature of sound itself. without the need for a visual component that enabled our fore-bearers to plan. Listen to Me! (12) Speech does have one disadvantage. When Mark Anthony cried. and even carry out. But the general alerting function of sounds also has its advantages. invasion at night. The wall between you and the base drummer next door may attenuate the sound but does not completely block it. which not only extends the time available for meaningful communications but may also have proven decisive in the competition for space and resources.

since you must keep your eyes fixed on gesturer in order to extract her meaning. and subtler. perhaps to watch a football game or to engage in some joint activity. Notwithstanding the peacock’s tail or parrot’s gaudy plumage. And sound is a better alerting medium in other respects as well. as observed in chimpanzees. (14) For humans. (15) Speech has another. visual signals can only attract attention if they occur within a fairly restricted region of space. although lip smacking. whereas the alerting power of sound is more or less independent of where its source is located relative to listener. Russell Gray has suggested to me that clicking one’s fingers as children often do when putting their hands up in class to answer a question. The alerting power of sound no doubt explains why animals have evolved vocal signals for sending messages of alarm. may have played a similar role. even birds prefer to make noises to attract attention. Three Hands Better than Two (16) Another reason why vocal language may have arisen is that it proves an extra medium. No amount of gesticulation will wake a sleeping person. like building a boat. whereas speech can be understood regardless of where you are looking. . One might argue then. may be a sort of “missing link” between gestural and vocal language. You can effectively divide attention. as we vulnerable to auditory assault. whether in proclaiming territory or warning of danger. that the addition of vocal channel provides additional texture and richness to the message. using speech to communicate with a companion while visual attention is deployed elsewhere. Indeed. There are a number of advantages in being able to communicate with people without having to look at them. gradually assuming more prominence in conveying the message itself. We have already seen that most people gesture with their hands.emphasis to specific actions or encourage reluctant offspring to attend while a parent lays down the law. attentional advantage. Manual gesture is much more demanding of attention. I know of no evidence that chimpanzees or other nonhuman primates are able to click their fingers as humans can. while they talk. It is also possible that non-vocal sounds accompanied gestural communication. the separation of visual and auditory attention may have been critical in the development of pedagogy. whereas a loud yell will usually do the trick. and indeed their faces. Visual signals are relatively inefficient because they may elude our gaze. and in any case we can shut them out by closing our eyes. Sounds may therefore have played a similar and largely alerting role in early evolution of language.

Moreover. who seems to have thought of almost everything. of course. would interfere with manual demonstration if they were too conveyed manually. well adapted to providing the mimetic aspect of language. would have been a serious inconvenience. not because it gave the hands freer rein for mimetic expression. wrote. which has no iconic or mimetic aspect. or driving a car. indicating in analogue fashion the shapes and sizes of things.(17) But perhaps it is not a simply a matter of being better. and can relieve the hands and arms of this chore.” By allowing the voice to take over the grammatical component. to provide the mimetic component. . or carrying a shopping. if vocal language did not become autonomous until the emergence of Homo sapiens. but rather because it freed the hands to do other activities. This is illustrated by a good TV cooking show. It may not be far fetch to suppose that the selective advantages of vocal communication emerged when the hominins began to develop a more advanced tool technology. and indeed to rival language itself in this respect. Clearly. until within the last 100. “We might have used our fingers as efficient instruments. it is much easier and more informative to talk while demonstrating than to try to mix linguistic signs in with the demonstration.000 years. yet we can and do talk while doing these things. of course. this might explain why tools manufacture did not really begin to develop true diversity and sophistication. while thus employed. The hands and arms. for a person with practice can report to a deaf man every word of a speech rapidly delivered at a public meeting. Charles Darwin. (19) Speech has the advantage over manual gestures in that it can be accomplished in parallel with manual demonstration. but the more explanatory aspect of pedagogy. as in the gesture that might accompany any statement “he went that a-way. Demonstrations might themselves be considered gestures. (18) But speech may have evolved.” It would clearly be difficult to communicate manually while holding an infant. and they could eventually verbally explain what they were doing while they demonstrated tool-making techniques. but the loss of our hands. where chefs is seldom at a lost for either word or ingredients. Speech is perfectly adequate to convey syntax. or the direction of movements. as it were. involving grammatical structure and symbolic content. Susan Golden- Meadow and David McNeill suggest that speech may have evolved because it allows the vocal and manual components to serve different and complimentary purposes. the hands are given free rein.

but all over it. Rather.000 years. Language and manufacture also allowed cultural transmission to become the dominant mode of inheritance in human life. That ungainly bird. . seems much more in accord with biological reality than the notion of linguistic “big bang” within the past 200.000 years ago in Africa. it was the invention of autonomous speech. it was not the emergence of the language itself that gave rise to the evolutionary explosion that has made our lives so different from our near relatives. and even explain to a novice what they were doing. and the brains that created it were not biologically superior to the brains that existed in 100. the jumbo jet. could not have been created without hundreds. The invention of speech may have merely been the first of many developments that have put us not only on the map. The idea that language may have evolved relatively slow. the great apes. perhaps thousands. freeing the hands for more sophisticated manufacture and allowing language to disengage from other manual activities. so that people could communicate while changing the baby’s diapers. of years of cultural evolution.(20) Thus.

A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PUSPOSES (EAPP) CARMELA G. Activity The teacher will as the students to read the text entitled ‘From A Brief History of English by Paul Roberts’ (the teacher will provide copies to students) The teacher will ask: What did the students observe on the language used on the passages read by the teacher? B. Analysis . OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students should be able to: A. REYES T-II SCIENCE CITY OF MUNOZ DIVISION I. PROCEDURE A. PhD and Philippe John Fresnillo Sipacio C. Projector. References: From A Brief History of English by Paul Roberts (English for Academic and Professional Purposes (DepEd Copy)). Teaching Materials: Power Point Presentation. Topic: READING ACADEMIC TEXTS B. Texts III. SUBJECT MATTER A. Differentiate language used in academic texts from various disciplines (CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-2) II. Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School by Jessie Saraza Barrot.

students will answer the following questions: 1. Abstraction Based on the text entitled ‘From A Brief History of English by Paul Roberts’ students will cite examples of lines and passages from it which cater the styles of academic texts.C. Application In a one whole sheet of paper. . D. Does academic writing requires concentration and comprehension? Explain.

Authors of academic texts usually present facts to support their main argument. Writers also consider opinions and non fact basis in their writings. Evaluation Write T if the statement is true and F if it is false. Academic writers list references. What new or additional learning have you had after taking up this lesson in terms of skills. 5. 4. Authors do not usually state critical questions and ideas. 1. Academic writers take a subjective point of view. Assignment Look for the copy of the text ‘Wrigley’s Chewing Gum’(which will be used for the next lesson) VI. content and attitude? . V. 3. Reflection Students will answer the following questions: 1. Does one should identify his/her purpose before reading? Explain IV. 2. 1. What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up this lesson? 2.

we can refer to them all as Anglo-Saxons. They show of the relationships of the Anglo-Saxons with the Romans. gem. The names given to the tribe who got to English are Angles. Everything before that was pre-history. (5) They still had a long way to go. The history of English is long and complicated. (3) At the time of the Roman Empire-say. At any rate. In the fourth century the Roman power weakened badly. church were borrowed at this times. and certainly Roman merchants and traders travelled among the tribes. The Roman influence did not extend to the outlying parts of the British Isles. he Anglo-Saxons. Their language was part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family. They have subjugated the Celts whom they found living there and had succeeded in settling up a Roman administration. Saxons. our linguistic ancestors were savage wandering through the forest of Northern Europe. getting their first taste of civilization. the . cheap. wine. and Jutes. (6) The Romans has been the ruling power in Britain since 43 C.E. their relatives. cheese. More exactly. however.E/. While the Goths were pounding. But we have to make do with just a notion. they spoke several different dialects. Such words as kettle. Among other defence measures. They spoke a dialect of Low German. they made periodic forays against the Romans in England. For a thousand years or so before the birth of Christ. and Ireland the Celts remained free and wild. since they were several different tribes. which means that we can guess at it but can’t prove much. from the beginning of the Christian era to around 400 C. and we can only hit the high spots. bishop. A Brief History of English By Paul Roberts (1) No understanding of the English language can be very satisfactory without the notice of the history of the language. In Scotland. (2) The history of our language begins a little after 600 C. Whales. away at the Romans in the Mediterranean countries. this period saw the first if our so many borrowing from Latin. plum. For convenience. and their first step was to help smash the civilization they were learning from.the speakers of what was to become English were scattered along the north coast of Europe. The Anglo-Saxons were learning. began to attach Britain.E. butter. (4) Their first contact with civilization was a rather thin acquaintance with the Roman Empire on whose borders they lived. Probably some of the Anglo- Saxons wondered into the empire occasionally.

Not only did the untamed tribes of Scotland and Whales grow more and more restive. when the Anglo-Saxon were converted to Christianity and learned the Latin alphabets. Fighting went on for as long as a hundred years before the Celts in Celts were all killed. a general. and the legions in Britain were siphoned off to fight elsewhere. (9) Not much is surely known about the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in England. Finally. Saxons. the last Roman ruler in England. Latin did not become the language of the country as it did in Gaul and Spain. though probably not a king. who was not entirely mythological. but it was certainly. troubles multiplied for the Romans in Britain. He had some success against the Anglo-Saxons. the eighth-century historian Bade. Middle .Romans build the famous Roman Walls to ward off the tribes in the north. We have no record of the English language until after 600. English was in England. The mass of people continued to speak Celtics. with Latin and the Roman civilization it contained in use as a top dressing. and these were probably the main lines of the invasion. (8) In the fourth century. Vortigern. to be precise in 597 within thirty to forty years. The Celts were left in possession of Britain but almost defenceless against the impending Anglo-Saxons attack. driven into Wales. and Jutes were long time securing themselves in England. bent on becoming the emperor. The conversion began. left the island and took the last legions with him.E. Furthermore. The conversion was a great advance for the Anglo-Saxons. Bede’s account is plausible enough. however. but then quarrelled and fought with Vortigern. (7) Even in England the Roman power was thin. (11) All this is pre-history. By 550 or so the Anglo-Saxon were finally established. He was a Romanized Celt. or reduced to slavery. The Jutes subdue the Picts. superior to anything in England up to the time. (12) It is customary to divide the history of the English language into three periods: Old English. (10) We don’t know. in 410 C. According to the best early source. so far as the language is concerned. there was growing difficulty everywhere in the Empire. that the Angles. but also the Anglo-Saxons began to make pirate raids on the eastern coast. but it was only temporary. Somewhat later the Angles established themselves in the eastern England and the Saxons in the south and west. not only of the spiritual benefits but also because it re-established contact with what remained of Roman civilization. the Jutes came in 449 in response to a plea from the Celtics king. settled permanently in Kent. who wanted their help against the Picts attacking the north. and with reinforcement from the continent. This is the period of King Arthur. The civilization didn’t amount to much in the year 600.

1500-1700. (14) In the Eighth century. It is sometimes called the Northumbian Renaissance.e. it was divided into several more or less autonomous kingdoms. the area between the Humber River and the Scottish border. some of which at times exercised a certain amount of control over the others. Northumbian power declined. Nor they overlooked England. including the epic poem Beowulf. settled in France. By 700 C. The most famous king of the West Saxons was Alfred the Great. Norse rule was to . who reigned in the second half of the ninth century. Indeed. He founded and supported schools and translated or caused to be translated many books from Latin into English. seventh century. Old English runs from the earliest record-i. In the ninth and tenth centuries. They travelled and attacked and plundered at their will and almost with impunity. the great bulk of Old English writing which has come down to us is the West Saxon dialect of 900 or later. (16) After many years of hit-and-run raids. In the century after the conversion the most advanced kingdom was Northumbrians. and Wessex. and Modern English. the finest in Europe. It was in this period that the best of the Old English literature was written. There was nothing much to oppose them except the Wessex power led by Alfred. the kingdom of Midlands. Russia and Ireland. Alfred’s great accomplishment was his successful opposition to the Viking invasion. Sometimes Modern English is further divided into Early Modern. They ravaged Italy and Greece.English. Modern English form 1500 to the present day. colonized Iceland and Greenland.to about 1100: Middle English from 1100 to 1450 or 1500. On the eastern side of the line. the Norsemen emerged in their ships from their homeland in Denmark and the Scandinavian Peninsula. and Late Modern from 1700 to the present. (15) In the military sphere. the country of the West Saxons. The long struggle ended in 877 with a treaty by which a line was drawn roughly from the northwest of England to the southwest. He was famous not only as a military man and administrator but also as a champion of learning. (13) When England came into history. became the leading power. and the center of the influence moved southward to Mercia. the Norsemaen landed an army on the east coast of England in the year 886.E the Northumbrians had developed a respectable civilization. A century later center shifted again. and discovered America several centuries before Columbus. dying in 901. and it was the first of the several renaissance through which Europe struggled upward out of the ruins of the Roman Empire. At this time also much of the Northumbian literature of two centuries earlier was copied in West Saxons.

scant. and them. So[eth]lice. scowl. you may approach it. Urne gedaeghwamlican half slye us to daeg. egg. Old English nouns . law. The favourite illustration is the Lord’s Prayer. For instance. If you pronounced the vowel in bit with your lips rounded. more person and number ending for verbs. Tobecume [thorn]in rice. and so on. Here is one: Faeder ure [thorn] u[eth]e eart on heofonum si [thorn] in nama gehalgd. which in half was pronounce something like the vowel in father. Hlaf is modern loaf. ugly. (18) It is supposed also-indeed. Examples of Norse words in the English language are sky. the sign æ is what Old English writers used for a vowel sound like that in modern hat or and. This has come to us in several different versions. outlaw. At any rate. (17) The linguistic result of all this was a considerable injection of Norse into the English language. (21) In grammar. This was called the Danelaw. But this is hard to demonstrate in detail. Old English was much more highly inflected than Modern English is. And ne gelaed [thorn]u us on cost nunge ac alys of yfele. a more complicated pronoun system. We have even borrowed some pronouns from Norse-they. Old English had some sounds which we do not have. there were more case endings for nouns. thrust. more or less. it must be true-that the Norsemen influenced the sound structure and the grammar of English. That is. There are hundreds more. since it needs no translation. (20) Some of the differences between this and Modern English are merely differences in orthography. their. take. (19) We may now have an example of Old English. Probably the speakers of English could understand. the language of the new comers who had moved into eastern England. but the first vowel was like that in too or ooze. The sound represented by y does not occur in Modern English. crawl. These words were borrowed first by the eastern and northern dialects and then in the course of hundreds of years made their way into English generally. But of course there are many differences in sounds too. give.prevail. there was considerable interchange and word borrowing. leg. Ure is the ancestor of modern our. Norse was at this time not so different from English as Norwegian or Danish is now. various endings for adjectives. we have dropped the h sound and changed the vowel. The western side was to be governed by Wessex. An forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfa[thorn] urum glytendum. The th sounds of modern thin or then are represented in Old English by [thorn] or [eth]. Gewur[eth]e [thorn]in willa on eor[eth]an swa swa on heofonum.

” And so on. oyster. genitive. purple. Old English did certainly contain borrowed words. road. and developed a vigorous kingdom and a very passable civilization. as the name shows. are common. The Normans. spend. I. the modern vocabulary is very much Latinized and Frenchified. priest.). Forgyfap is the third person plural form of the verb. Heofonum. of the thousand most common words in English. adopted the French language. they crossed the Channel and made themselves master of England. a large number came into English after Conversion (angle. some 62 percent are native English. Present day English has only two cases from nouns-common case and possessive case. radish. martyr. mother. man. dative. Most of these to be sure. Even so. and because. the nominative is ure.. high frequency words-the. Of the words from The American College Dictionary only about 14 percent are native. school. etc. we now use more rigid word order and more structure words (preposition. In the early tenth century they established themselves in Northern France. and the like) to express relationships than Old English did. Word order is different. But the great majority of Old English words were native English. came originally from Scandinavia. taken mostly from Latin and French. We have seen that many borrowing were coming in from Norse. Most of the Old English words are what we may call native English. The Old English vocabulary was not. In urum gyltendum both words are dative plural. Adjectives now have no case system at all. and Old English became Middle English. Rather large numbers had been borrowed from Latin. etc. the majority of words in English are borrowed. Adjectives had five-all these and an instrumental case besides. that is. . led by Duke William. butter. (24) No on the contrary. kettle. “urne gedaeghwamlican half syle us” in place of “Give us our daily bread. (22) Some of this grammar we can see in the Lord’s Prayer. too. auxiliaries. candle. for instance is a dative plural. The political event which facilitated these changes was the Norman Conquest. On the other hand. (23) In vocabulary Old English is quite different from Modern English. (25) Sometime between the year 1000 and 1200 various important changes took place in the structure of English. accusative. bishop. Some of these were taken while the Anglos-Saxons were still in the continent (cheese. words which have not been borrowed from other languages but which have been a part of English ever since English was a part of Indo-European. In the year 1066. Urne is an accusative singular. of. etc.had four cases –nominative.). the nominative singular was heofon.

The last sentence shows that the process was not yet dead. but it continued-and continues still. The process was speeded up by sound changes which caused many of the endings to sound alike. scarlet. By using au courant instead of. blue. play words. lamp. treaty. words for foods. alliance. after a hundred years or so. the writer indicates that he is no dull clod who knows only English but an elegant person aware of how things are done in le haut monde. Great numbers of Normans came to England. (26) One might wonder why. after the Norman Conquest. church words. (29) Thus French word came into English. music. sermon. majesty. There must be hundreds of towns and villages in which French was never heard except when visitors of high station passed through. blanket. chess. (27) But English. is today rather highly inflected compared to its cousin English. incense. German. vermilion. bacon. elegant. though survived as the national language. But it did not replace the English language as the language of the people. literary words. people came to rely more on word order and prepositions than on inflectional endings to communicate their meanings. which did not experience a Norman Conquest. baptism. French became the language of the court. religion. French ceased. The reason is that the conquest was not a national migration. There were words to do with government. government. was profoundly changed after the Norman Conquest. chair. leisure. dance. tax. on introduced not only French ideas and French things but also their French names. say. but they came as rulers and landlords.For the next several hundred years. curtain. peach. parlour. colours. This was not only easy but also socially useful. parson. Some of the changes-in sound structure and grammar-would no doubt have taken place whether there have been a conquest or not. all sorts of them. towel. veal. lemon. beef. the language of the polite society. replacing English entirely. parliament. biscuit. to be the native language of very many people in England. To pepper one’s conversation with French expressions was to show that one was well bred. . When one spoke English. the mirror of elegance and civilization. (28) But it is in the vocabulary that the effects of the Conquest are most obvious. as the early Anglo-Saxons invasion had been. England was ruled by kings and whose first language was French.to be a zealously cultivated sound language. French did not become the national language. au courant. the language of nobility. mutton. jelly. cream. abreast of things. conversation. the language of literature. household words. Ever before 1066 the case system of English nouns and adjectives was becoming simplified. But no doubt the conquest facilitated the changes.

flower. fourteenth century: Ther was also a Nonne. poet. This is not to say that English became French. they merely exchange one kind of complexity for another. Most of the high frequency words-the pronouns. was still Germanic language. then. gentle. as any foreign speakers who try to learn it will hasten to tell you. these changes contributed much to the chaos in which English spelling now finds itself. The sound system and the grammar change a good deal. a Prioresse. Incidentally. And she was cleped madame Eglentyne. surgeon. grammar. nice. Indeed you may be able to make some sense of Chaucer straight off. the prepositions. logic. very. Here is a famous passage from the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. though these also felt the ripples of the French influence. many people must have had more French words than English at their command. noun. stomach. just ordinary words of all sorts. Speakers made less use of case systems and other influencial devices and relied more on word order and structure words to express their meanings. study. count. And Frenshe she spak ful faire and fetisly. age. bucket. the conjunctions. This is often said to be simplification. the auxiliaries. English remained English in sound structure and in grammar. surprise. Hir gretteste oot was but by Seint Loy. (31) Middle English. (33) Sometime between 1400 and 1600 English underwent a couple of sound changes which made language of Shakespeare quite different from that of Chaucer. But a week of good study should put one touch with the Middle English poet Chaucer. too. second. For Frenshe of Parys was to hirse unknowe. Middle English is simpler than the Old English just because it is closer to Modern English. romance. That of hir smyling was ful simple and coy. learned words. It takes three or four months at least to learn to read Old English prose and more than that for poetry. as well as a great ordinary nouns and verbs and adjectives-were not replaced by borrowing. remained English. though you would need instruction in pronunciation to make it sound like poetry. literary. anatomy. fault. move. Entuned in hir nose ful seemly. (32) For us. . until at the end of that time. final. After the scole of Stratford- atte-Bowe. Languages don’t become simpler. (30) All these and thousands more poured into English vocabulary between 1100 and 1500. plain. sure. cry.story. Modern language is not a simple language. but it differed from Old English in many ways. The very heart of the vocabulary. but it isn’t really. Ful weel she soong the service dyvyne.

“silent”. Since we still keep the Middle English system of spelling these words. the word nam had in Middle English a vowel something like that in the modern word father. This was the first of many advances in communication in which have worked to unify languages and to arrest the development of dialect difference. though of course the printing affects writing principally rather than speech. Englishmen had grown accustomed to . (38) The period of Early Modern English. Among other things it hastened the standardization of spelling. had the vowel of modern mean. Where before books had been rare and costly. as we say. For instance. a more daring and imaginative view of the future. when people developed. For instance. and new ideas meant new languages. he was pronounced something like modern hey. in which no such vowel occurred. stored would have been pronounced by Chaucer as two-syllable words. on the other. Again the shift was through going and affected all the word in which these vowels sounds occurred. (35) The other change is what is called the Great Vowel Shift. bine-in an English book. they suddenly become cheap and common. an invention introduced to England by William Caxton in the year 1472. the words name. moon had the vowel of moan. New ideas multiplied. The change was an important one because it affected thousands of words and gave different aspects to the whole language. it represented a vowel sound. stone. But there were several other developments that had an effect upon the language. (37) These two changes.(34) One change was the elimination of a vowel sound in certain unstressed positions at the end of words. the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries-was also the period of the English Renaissance. Italian. (36) The vowel shift has meant also that we have come to use an entirely different set of symbols for representing vowel sounds that is used by the writers of such languages as French. or Spanish book. on the other hand. But if you read bine in the French. produced basic differences between Middle English and Modern English. the differences between Modern English and Middle English are often more real than apparent. a keen interest in the past and.that is. More and more people learn to read and write. If you come across a strange word-say. with the vowels of wine or dine. you will announce it according to the English system. wine. Thus was a systematic shifting of half a dozen vowels and diphthongs in stressed syllables. But it wasn’t silent for Chaucer. seemed. The e in these words became. Italian or Spanish. wine. mouse sounded like moose. you will pronounce it with the vowel of mean or seen. then. So also the words laughed. One was the invention of printing. dance were pronounced as two syllables by Chaucer but as just one by Shakespeare.

Probably the average educated American today has more words from French in his vocabulary than from the native English source and more from Latin than the French. benefit. the English language has moved a long way from what it was in 1600. For instance. dictionary. climax. Shakespearean actors putting on a play speak the words. all these expressions linger with us because of the power of the works in which they occur. together with their verb forms. Many people of the eighteenth century. properly enough. (39) The greatest writer of the Early Modern English period is of course Shakespeare. paragraph. scene. proposed to polish and prune and restrict English. now they borrowed from Latin and Greek. bonus.” Still. that considerable sound changes have taken place between Early Modern English and the English of the present day. The academy never came into being. the l in would. inspire are random examples. exist. initiate. in their modern pronunciation. multiply. even though we do not use these features in the present-day speech and writing. In these points and a great many others. Mac. English have been raiding Latin from Old English times and before. and the best-known book is the King James Version of the Bible. contradict. should. Pedestrian. however.borrowing words from French as a result of the Norman Conquest. I will go” Such form as hath and doth have been replaced by has and does. but the eighteenth century did . The bible (if not Shakespeare) has made many features of Early Modern English perfectly familiar to many people down to present time. face had the sound of the modern glass. (40) It is not always realized. But it is very doubtful that this pronunciation would be understood at all by Shakespeare. and thousands of words from the classic languages poured in. the word reason was pronounced raisin. which they felt was proliferating too wildly. but they are still familiar to us in prayer and in Biblical quotation. As we have seen. One of this is the vigorous attempt made in the eighteenth century. anatomy. (41) The history of English since 1700 is filled with many movements and counter movements. “Whither thou goest. the old pronounce thou and thee have dropped out of use now. of which we can notice only a couple. to regulate and control the English language. sirrah” would be “Nuts to that. “Goes he hence tonight? Would now be “Is he going away tonight?” Shakespeare’s “Fie o’nt. and rather the half- hearted attempts made since. But now the floodgates really opened. palm was pronounce. published in 1611. There was much talk on an academy which would rule on what people could and could not say and write. not understanding very well the forces which govern the language. In Shakespeare’s time.

succeed in establishing certain attitudes which, though they haven’t had
much effect on the development of the language itself, have certainly
changed the native speaker’s feeling about the language.

(42) In part a product of the wish to fix and establish the language was the
development of the dictionary. The first English dictionary was published in
1603; it was a list of 2,500 words briefly defined. Many others were published
with gradual improvement until Samuel Johnson published his English
Dictionary in 1775. This steadily revised, dominated the field in England for
nearly a hundred years. Meanwhile in America, Noah Webster published his
dictionary in 1828, and before long dictionary publishing was a big business in
this country. The last century has seen the publication of one great dictionary;
the twelve volume Oxford English Dictionary, compiled in the course of
seventy-five years through the labour of many scholars. We have also, of
course, numerous commercial dictionaries which are good as the public
wants them to be if not, indeed, rather better.

(43) Another product of the eighteenth century was the invention of “English
Grammar”. As English came to replace Latin as the language of scholarship it
was felt that one should also be able to control and dissect it, parse and
analyse it, as one could Latin. What happened in practice was that the
grammatical description that applied to Latin was removed and
superimposed on English. This was silly, because English is an entirely different
kind of language, with its own forms and signals and ways of producing
meaning. Nevertheless, grammar on the Latin model were worked out and
taught in the schools. In many schools they are still being taught. This activity
is not often popular with school children, but it is sometimes an interesting
and instructive exercise in logic. The principal harm in it is that it has tended to
keep people from being interested in English and has obscured the real
features of English structure.

(44) But probably the most important force in the development of English in
the modern period has been the tremendous expansion of English-speaking
peoples. In 1500 English was minor language, spoken by a few people on a
small island. Now perhaps the greatest language of the world, spoken
natively by over a quarter of a billion people and as a second language by
many millions more. When we speak of English now, we must specify whether
we mean American English, British English, Australian English, Indian English, or
what, since the differences are considerable. The American cannot go to
England, or the Englishman to America confident that he will always
understand and be understood. The Alabaman in Iowa or the Iowan in

Alabama shows himself a foreigner every time he speaks. It is only because
the communication has become fast and easy that English in this period.



At the end of the lesson students should be able to:

A. Explain the specific ideas contained in various academic texts


B. References: Wrigley’s Chewing Gum (English for Academic and
Professional Purposes (DepEd Copy)), Communicate Today English for
Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School by Jessie
Saraza Barrot, PhD and Philippe John Fresnillo Sipacio

C. Teaching Materials: Power Point Presentation, Projector, Texts


A. Activity

The teacher will ask the students to:

1. Within five minutes, write their idea about love.

2. Exchange with their classmates work. Read their classmate’s
work then underline the sentence which encapsulates your classmate’s

3. After reading each work, return to the owner then evaluate if
their answers are correct.

B. Analysis

Thesis statement presents or describes the point of an essay. In a
academic text the thesis statement is usually presented in the abstract or
executive summary or found at the last part of the introduction. It is written in
a declarative from.

Topic Sentence presents or describes the point of a paragraph. In other
words it is the main idea of a paragraph.

he soon decided on chewing gum. Company to produce and sell chewing gum. the baking soda and cookbook became more popular than the soap. (2) Wrigley then established his own company. The soap was not very popular with merchants because it was priced at 5 cents.C. Wrigley’s Chewing Gum (1) Wrigley’s chewing gum was actually developed as a premium to be given away with other product rather than as a primary product for sale. Abstraction The teacher will discuss the strategies in locating the Topic Sentence. Application The teacher will post the text entitled Wrigley’s Chewing Gum. . giving baking soda away as a premium. was working for his father in Chicago selling soap that has been manufactured in his father’s factory. Over time. Wrigley Jr. As a teenager. he created the Wm. and this selling price did not leave a good profit margin for the merchants. William Wrigley Jr. Wrigley convinced his father to raise the price to ten cents and to give away cheap umbrellas as a premium for the merchants. Once again. in his company he was selling soap as a wholesaler. D. This worked successfully. when Wrigley realized that the demand for premium was stronger than the demand for the original product. Students will identify the thesis statement of the text. so Wrigley began a new operation selling baking soda. confirming to Wrigley that the use of premium was an effective sales tool. and using a cook book to promote each deal.

IV. Vassar and Lotta gums. The latter two brands grew in popularity. while the first two were phased out. Reflection Students will answer the following questions: 1.(3) Wrigley started out with two brands of gum. Evaluation Let the students identify the topic sentence of the following texts: VI. What new or additional learning have you had after taking up this lesson in terms of skills. and soon introduced Juicy Fruit and Spearmint. content and attitude? . What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up this lesson? 2. Juicy Fruit and Spearmint are two of Wrigley’s main brand to this day.

2. . B. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PUSPOSES (EAPP) CARMELA G. Use knowledge of text structure to glean the information he/she needs (CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-4) II. Randomly. Activity 1. REYES T-II SCIENCE CITY OF MUNOZ DIVISION I. Analysis The teacher will discuss the different academic texts. who will read their works in front of the class. Write the words or academic words students used in their descriptions. call students. Teaching Materials: Power Point Presentation. Let the students write something about the picture. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students should be able to: A. PROCEDURE A. References: Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School by Jessie Saraza Barrot. Topic: READING ACADEMIC TEXTS B. Projector. Show a picture of a person sitting on a chair and holding a newspaper. SUBJECT MATTER A. Texts III. PhD and Philippe John Fresnillo Sipacio C.

Students will identify whether the text is academic or non academic. differentiate academic text to non academic text. If academic. ACADEMIC TEXT NON-ACADEMIC TEXT IV. Application Using the Venn diagram. The teacher will present/post academic texts through a power point presentation. Abstraction To differentiate the difference between academic text and non- academic texts. (Follow the link to get the different academic texts) 2. tell the type of academic text posted.com/users/UniRdg_Library/folders/Study%20Adv ice/media898c4360-f86d-4808-812a-758d4ef4ac02 D.C. Reflection Students will answer the following questions: . EVALUATION 1. VI. watch the video in the following link: http://www.screencast.

content and attitude? . What new or additional learning have you had after taking up this lesson in terms of skills. 1. What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up this lesson? 2.

Texts III. article. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students should be able to: A. PROCEDURE A. Topic: READING ACADEMIC TEXTS B. 3. Students will brain storm about their experiences in reading long texts. REYES T-II SCIENCE CITY OF MUNOZ DIVISION I. References: Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School by Jessie Saraza Barrot. SUBJECT MATTER A. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PUSPOSES (EAPP) CARMELA G. PhD and Philippe John Fresnillo Sipacio C. Use various techniques in summarizing a variety of academic texts (CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-5) II. 2. Analysis The teacher will discuss the following: WHAT IS SUMMARIZING? As an important skill in critical reading. an article or parts of an article. useful information. Activity 1. B. summarizing is often used to determine the essential ideas in a book. Group students into 6. . or key words or phrases that help you meet your reading purpose. Projector. Each group should have one representative to consolidate their experiences and present it in class. These essential ideas include the gist or main idea. book chapter. Teaching Materials: Power Point Presentation.

7. Stick to the ideas it presents. Record the details of the original source. 6. publisher. 9. date of publication. place of publishing and URL. 4. Select and underline or circle the key ideas and phrases while reading. Idea Heading Format In this format. List your ideas in sentence form in a concept map. Ensure that you do not copy a single sentence from the original text. Refrain from adding comments about the text. Write all key ideas or phrases you identified on the margins or on your notebook in a bullet or outline form. Author-Heading Format In this format. if online) 13. Without looking at the text. the summarized idea comes after the citation. Compare your output with the original text to ensure accuracy. Use appropriate transitional devices to improve cohesion. (author’s name. 2. Clarify your purpose before you read. Combine the sentences into paragraph. 2. . 11. GUIDELINES IN SUMMARIZING 1. identify the connections of these key ideas and phrases using a concept map. another strategy is to annotate the text. Read the text and understand the meaning. title. FORMATS IN SUMMARIZING 1. Edit the draft of your summary by eliminating redundant ideas. 10. 5. 8. 12. 3. Format your summary properly. the summarized idea comes before the action.

ph//schhp?hl=en&as_sdt=0. C.5) D. Date Heading Format In this format. Abstraction The teacher will present more examples of texts using the three formats of summarizing. Google Scholar (https. 3. Each group will be assigned a specific format of summarizing which they will use in summarizing the assign text to them. 2. Application 1. . Students will be grouped into 3.google. the summarized idea comes after the date when the material was published.com. After 15minutes students will present their works in front of the class. Please follow to the link for more examples of text.3.//scholar.

Reflection Students will answer the following questions: 1. among the three formats of summarizing. What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up this lesson? 2. VI. 1. which do you think is the most applicable of all academic texts? Why? 2. content and attitude? .IV. the students will explain the following briefly. Give three of the guidelines in summarizing which you think is the most important. For you. Explain your answer. What new or additional learning have you had after taking up this lesson in terms of skills. Evaluation In a one half crosswise.

Topic: Thesis Statement B. Activity Let the students brainstorm on the idea below and ask them try to write the missing letters to complete the words. a main idea or a central message. states the thesis statement of an academic text CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-6 (Week 2-Day 2) II. . and Sipacio P. PROCEDURE A. Francisco T-III Science City of Munoz Division I. Laptop III. Overhead Projector. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES Ann Christian A. Pp. (2016). (2016) Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School. Book. B. The argument(s) you make in your paper reflect the main idea. References: Barrot J. Analysis Introduction: Every paper you write have a main point. English for Academic and Professional Purposes. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic. The sentence that captures your position on this main idea is what we call thesis statement. 119-128 C. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students are expected to: A. SUBJECT MATTER A. Teaching Materials: Curriculum Guide. The_i_ S_a_e_ _t . It is one of the most important elements of any successful essay. pp 86-103 Apiras L. Body: A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed.

 A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope. Keywords should be specific. and the organization of supporting information. the thrust of your research paper.al 2006) SUGGESTIONS FOR AN EFFECTIVE THESIS STATEMENT 1.  A thesis summarizes the conclusion that the writer has reached about the topic  A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. It should present the topic of your paper and also make a comment about . 3. C. and indicative of the range of research. A good paper will often have secondary purposes but they should not compete with the main point. I will discuss X. thrust of the argument or analysis. A paragraph should have coherence. your paragraph shows coherence. The thesis statement should express an opinion or state a position things you need to convince your reader of. 2. risk or challenge (Ramage et. the one point you will need to prove.  A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Abstraction A thesis statement focuses your ideas into one of two sentences. When a paragraph is woven together so you can read and understand one idea and it flows to the next. The thesis statement should state just one thing. purpose and directions of the paper. Good: X has made a significant impact on the teenage Population due to its… Bad: In this paper.  A strong thesis statement usually contains an element of uncertainty. accurate.

E. . Poe succeeds in creating that effect in “The Raven” through the use of repetition and adds to it through contrast of religious Christian and Greek mythological references. Poe enhances this feeling by employing both Christian and Greek religious symbolism.your position in relation to the topic. My First Girlfriend/Boyfriend 3. My Hopes and Fears Example: Subject: My First Date with Rainy THESIS STATEMENT: An experience that begins in eager anticipation and proceeds smoothly may still end in disaster nonetheless teach you something useful about human beings and human relationships IV. Poe creates a dark and morose feeling in “The Raven”. My Failures/Disappointments 5. Choose the most comprehensive thesis statement by encircling the letter of your choice. My Family 4. EVALUATION DIRECTION. Through the use of droning alliteration and assonance. Your thesis statement should tell your reader what the paper is about and also help guide in your writing and keep your argument focused. b. My Favorite Teacher 2.A Poe uses repetition and contrasting religious symbolism to create the dark and morose feeling of “The Raven”. D. (1) “The Raven” is a dark and morose poem that leaves the audience feeling depressed by the last stanza. Application Choose two of the subjects listed below and compose a thesis statement for each. 1. [Original] a.

REFLECTION . By employing well-chosen diction and syntax. including “gold” and rivers”. V. c. and depressing feelings because of the repetition of sounds and the contrasting Christian and Greek symbols of death and the afterlife. In the poem “To My Dear and Loving Husband. c. E. In “The Feralist #1. In “To My Dear and Loving Husband”. Anne Bradstreet uses several symbols including “gold” and “rivers” to convey her feelings of love. ASSIGNMENT Make an advance reading of outlining and paraphrasing of academic texts. a.A Poe’s “The Raven” conveys dark. morose. VI.” Anne Bradstreet accomplishes her husband by effectively using the symbols of “gold” and “rivers”. Anne Bradstreet invokes her feelings of love in “To My Dear and Loving Husband” because of her effective use of symbols. (2) Alexander Hamilton appeals to the logic of the Americans reading this text. (3) While describing her feelings for her husband in this poem.” Alexander Hamilton appeals to his audience’s sense of logic though his use of powerful diction and clear syntax. c. b. b. Anne Bradstreet uses many symbols to get her point of the love for her husband across to the reader. a. Alexander Hamilton appeals to his audience’s sense of logic. Alexander Hamilton appeals to the logic of his audience by relying o well-chosen diction and syntax.

The table below lists the similarities and difference between the two skills: SUMMARIZING PARAPHRASING  Does not match the source  Does not match the source word for word. Make sure to add evidence from the text by quoting appropriate lines. References: Barrot J.  Then. there are still other skills that can help you encapsulate the ideas or concepts in a text effectively and one of these is PARAPHRASING. Preparation  Form groups of five members each.english. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES Ann Christian A. paraphrase/explain a text using one’s own words CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-7 (Week 2-Day 3) II. and Sipacio P. Francisco T-III Science City of Munoz Division I. (2016) Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School. . B. Pick a song written in English and try to rewrite each line without changing its meaning. Teaching Materials: Curriculum Guide. with the same group.purdue. analyze the song. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students are expected to: A.  Share your outputs in class. Laptop III. Topic: Paraphrasing B.edu/owl/resource/619/1/ C. PROCEDURE A. Overhead Projector. SUBJECT MATTER A. Book. Teaching or Modeling Aside from summarizing. pp 86-103 https://owl. word for word.

. 5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.  a more detailed restatement than a summary. but a source into your own words. Set the original aside.. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. . including only the main points. 6.. 4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. At the top of the note card.  it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.  Presents a broad overview.  one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. so is  Changes the words or phrasing usually much shorter than the of a passage. write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.  the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. 2. but retains and original text fully communicates the original meaning  Must be attributed to the  Must be attributed to the original source original source A paraphrase is. which focuses concisely on a single main idea.. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because.  Involves putting the main idea  Involves putting a passage from into your own words. 3. presented in a new form.  your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else.  it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 1. and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material.

purdue. has the dubious distinction of having 16 cities on the list. it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. 130 cities had no garbage disposal plants. resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. An acceptable summary: Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). Neither Beijing nor Shanghai appear on the list . probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. James D. In fact. you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. In addition. Since the problem usually originates during note taking. Possible answer: The report said that over three-fourths of the total cities surveyed had inadequate sewage treatment. It said 178 cities examined had not built any sewage treatment facilities and 130 cities had not been equipped with garbage disposal plants. failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. and 178 had no sewage treatment plants at all. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively.94 percent of sewage was treated adequately in the cities surveyed and less than 20 percent of household garbage met with proper handling.english. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.edu/owl/resource/619/1/ The teacher will show another example: North China's Shanxi Province. Therefore. Lester. (1976): 46-47. . the country's largest coal supplier and most polluted region. https://owl.The report found that only 22. 2nd ed.Some examples to compare The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes. A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes. Writing Research Papers.

a. a. 99% of Americans own 40% as much as the richest 1%. the judge was relieved. d. The richest 1% are 40 times as wealthy as the rest of Americans. The judge was relieved when the jury was finally ready to announce its verdict. 2. d. China’s leading coal-producing area. 3. The jury welcomed the judge's relief. c. b. the richest one percent will soon own 40% of the country's wealth. Guided Practice Which sentences are closest in meaning to the five sentences below? 1. When the jury announced its verdict. b. It has been reported that the richest one percent of Americans own 40% of the country's wealth. 40% of the country's wealth is in the hands of only 1% of Americans. The judge welcomed the prospect of an imminent verdict. d. c. almost 80 percent of household garbage was not treated according to standards. lead the most polluted list with 16 cities while Beijing and Shanghai escaped the list entirely C. Shanxi Province. b. . 25% of adolescent mothers become pregnant again when their first babies are two years old. If the gap between rich and poor continues to grow at the current rate. c. 25% of babies are born to mothers who are adolescents. One out of four adolescent mothers has another baby before the first baby reaches his second birthday. 4. 25% of adolescents who have one baby have a second baby within two years of the first baby's birth. Research data suggest that girls who witnessed maternal abuse may tolerate abuse as adults more than girls who did not. The judge asked the jury to arrive at a verdict. A quarter of adolescent mothers gives birth when their first born is two. a.and indeed.

(2009). highlight the keywords or phrases in the original texts and write your paraphrases. b. a. b D. c 3. expertise and literacies” (Partnership for 21st Century Skills. it is a blend of content. d. Cite your source properly. specific skills. p. knowledge. b 5. 2009. c 4. Retrieved from http://www.p21. Women who were abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children. P21 framework definitions. Women who observed the abuse of their mothers when they were young are more likely to endure abuse themselves. 2. Answers: 1.org/storage/documents/P21_Framework_Definitions. c. Martha believes that the dream of most adolescents is to write something important. a. Martha feels that writing about adolescent problems is worthwhile.1). Martha thinks that adolescents can write about their problems. the Partnership has developed a unified.pdf Your paraphrase . “To help practioners integrate skills into the teaching of core academic subjects. a. c. knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life. 5. Martha thinks that the issue of adolescent problems is important to write about. b. Reference Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Independent Practice Using a pen. Martha thinks that adolescents like to write about their problems. This Framework describe the skills. collective vision for learning known as the Framework for 21st Century Learning. d. Women who witnessed the abuse of their mother as teens are more likely to become abusive adults. Girls who testify about maternal abuse tolerate abuse as adults more readily. A.

et. While reading and attending lectures. When you begin your writing. “Academic writing is best thought of as a circular process. economic development and urbanization) and climactic conditions” (Gurney. Your paraphrase . you first need to plan what you are going to write.” (Institue of Education. “It is widely recognized that there is global diversity crisis. human population growth. 98-107. University of London. p. Your planning will involve reading sources such as journal articles. Your paraphrase C.al.. and environmental degradation is expected to accelerate with profoundly changing socioeconomic (e. begin to organize all your information and to write a first draft.B. 2008 p. you may want to take notes. 26.10) Reference Institute of Education (2008).al. G. An evaluation of marine integrated conservation and development projects in Indonesia. Student writing guide: Academic writing in educational settings. In Global Environment Change. Poverty and protected areas.98) Reference Gurney. 2014. (2014). books as well as attending lectures and conferences.g. et.

V.IV. ASSIGNMENT On a sheet of paper. which she found difficult to believe. The board of trustees agreed with the president to appoint a woman head of the department. 90 million acres were taken away by whites by 1932. Ronny told his aunt that a bear had attacked him. 3. Anyone who has ever driven through the Mojave Desert knows that one should always carry a supply of extra water. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___ Possible Answers: 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___3. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___4. 1. REFLECTION . A local newspaper claims that 75% of all homeless people do not like homeless shelters and prefer to live as they do now. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___5. Native Americans had less than half of the land they had owned only 45 years earlier. By 1932. 2. 5. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___2. A woman who was nominated by the president to head the department was quickly approved by the board of trustees. 4. answer the question below comprehensively: Why is paraphrasing important in academic writing? VI. EVALUATION Use your own words to paraphrase the following sentences. Of the 138 million acres of land that Native Americans owned in 1887. An article in a local newspaper reports that three out of four homeless people think that the streets are better than the so-called homeless shelters. Ronny's aunt did not really believe his story about the bear attack. The Mojave Desert is so hot that it is dangerous to try to cross it without plenty of water.

Francisco T-III Science City of Munoz Division I. Topic: Outlining B. (2016). OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students are expected to: A. In a similar manner. PROCEDURE A. Teaching Materials: Curriculum Guide. Teaching or Modeling Outline establishes the “shape” that essay will take. It may also help a writer establish unity and coherence in his or her presentation of ideas. By unity. pp 17-26 C. Book. and paint on a building. engineers and architects see to it that its farmers and foundations are already in place. The outline should be a reflection of an essay’s thesis statement. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES Ann Christian A. Reference: Wyson J. we mean that all information found in an essay speak of the thesis . English for Academic and Professional Purposes. partitions. Laptop III. Overhead Projector. B. will guide the writer as to what details are supposed to be included in an essay. outline reading texts in various disciplines CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-8 (Week 2-Day 4) II. and in turn. Preparation  How do architects and engineers usually begin their construction of a building?  Why do they begin in this manner? Is it advisable to begin their construction in any other way? Why or Why not? Before putting on cement. This is because these are essential in ensuring that the building will stand firm through time and determining the shape that the building will take upon its completion. SUBJECT MATTER A. an outline is crucial in academic writing.

MAIN IDEA A.  Outlines are used in determining the structure of an academic paper.) while the supporting arguments or details are marked by capital letters (A. Subsidiary idea to 2 b. Subsidiary or supporting idea to II B. take italic numbers and are further indented. Subsidiary idea to B 2.)  Make sure that the main headings and sub-headings should at least come in pairs. there should not be a “I” in the first place. C. we mean that the ideas in an essay are logically are logically arranged. B. I. Subsidiary idea to 2 II. and by coherence.statement. The main ideas take roman numerals. Subsidiary idea or supporting idea to I B. Subsidiary idea or supporting idea to I 1.  Main headings for each of the sections are encoded using Roman numerals (I. Sub-points under the capital letters. Subsidiary idea to B a. Subsidiary idea to II C. Sub-points under each main idea take capital letters and are indented. III etc. if “II” is absent. Subsidiary idea to II . Sentence Outline – makes use of complete sentences Basic Outline Form Below is a synopsis of the outline form. II. etc. if there is no “B” then the previous idea should be included in the main heading and should not be encoded as “A”. MAIN IDEA A. Topic Outline – makes use of key words and phrases 2. Likewise. Two Types of Outline 1. if any.

develop muscles. Running is becoming an extremely popular sport of all ages. Burns calories 3. Aids self-control 2. unlike pole attract III. Encourages a healthy diet 4. Running is great form of exercise because it helps people control their weight. there has to be 2 and so forth. and improves mental and physical performance. Illustration of the principle B. Body A. Poles occur in pairs Sample Outline 2 Title: “The Benefits of Running” 1. A. there has to be a B. The composition of magnets C. Suppresses appetite B. Like poles repel. However. Improves tone . The principle behind illustration IV. Origin of magnets II. Weight control 1. B. Introduction A. Sample Outline 1 TITLE: Properties of Magnets I. III. Illustration B. MAIN IDEA It is up to the writer to decide on how many main ideas and supporting ideas adequately describe the subject. 2. Muscular Development 1. Counter-examples of magnets E. if there is 1. How to create magnets D. Attracts objects which are magnetic in nature. if there is a I in the outline. there has to be II. if there is an A. Freely hanging magnets align in one direction A.

There are three main types of energy transformation that occur in the biosphere. The study of energy transformation in living organisms is called bioenergetics. solar energy is captured by the green pigment called chlorophyll. The third type of energy transformation occurs when the chemical energy of these phosphates bonds is utilized by the cells to do work. In the first type. Science Life processes involve a continuous flow of energy within a cell. The branch of physics that deals with energy and its transformation is called thermodynamics. Increases strength 4. Guided Practice Direction. Intensifies vitality D. Lowers blood pressure 3. Strengthen heart 2. and from one organism to another. Branches of Science dealing with energy transformation A. 2. Read through the texts. Aids sleep 2. Improves endurance C. Inhibits depression 3. Cardiovascular Fitness 1. complete the outline for each text. Changes blood lipids 4. Improves circulation C. His involves the conversion of chemical energy of carbohydrates and other molecules into phosphate bonds. Then. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ . Its principles are universally applied to chemical processes in both living and non-living organisms. from one cell to another. in green plants and is transformation is called cellular respiration. Psychological Well-being 1. Enhances contours 3.

Friendly customers 2. Holiday bonus B. _______________________________________________________________ C. Helpful co-workers b. _______________________________________________________________ 2. Conversion of Chemical Energy 1. _______________________________________________________________ B. __________________ a. Energy of Phosphate Bonds 1. Holiday bonus . Solar Energy 1. Short shifts 2. Major and minor ideas are mixed together in the lists below. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ A. Helpful co-workers b. Thesis: Working at the local coffee shop was my favorite job. _______________________________________________________________ 2. Independent Practice Direction. Good schedule 1. Pleasant environment 1. __________________ a.B. Flexible hour c. _______________________________________________________________ D. _______________________________________________________________ 2. Put the ideas in logical order by choosing the best idea from the list. Flexible hour c. A.

______________________________________________________ a. ___________________ a. Holiday bonus IV. C. Good pay 1. Helpful co-workers b. Flexible hour c. Separate the major from the minor details by filling in the outline. EVALUATION Direction. _________________________________________________ Major Detail 2. ______________________________________________________ . Main Idea: Freshman English Course in college is demanding  Surprise Quizzes  A great deal of writing  Three major tests  Many tests  Term paper  Several Novels  Several short stories  Extensive reading loads  Frequent writing assignments  Written summaries of articles assigned  Reading magazines and newspapers articles  Comprehensive final exam Major Detail 1. A. _________________________________________________ Minor Details b. Generous Tips 2. _________________________________________________ c. The major and minor details are mixed together in the two groups that follow. The major details in each group support a given main idea.

_________________________________________________ c. _________________________________________________ Minor Details b. _________________________________________________ Major Detail 3. REFLECTION What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up the lesson? What new or additional learning have you had other taking up this lesson in terms of skills. Functional Text in English 1. ______________________________________________________ a. and prepare an outline for each.al. __________________________________________________ c.A. et. Pp 40-41) V. VI. E. ASSIGNMENT Select two or three chapters from other textbooks in natural and social sciences. _________________________________________________ Minor Details b. a. Make sure your output adheres to the conventions of outlining discussed in the lesson. content and attitude? . __________________________________________________ (Source: Pablo.

not only in talking about movie plots but also in writing academic and professional papers. pp 86-103 C. Teaching or Modeling Suppose you told your friend that you just watched a great film and your friend asks what the story is. or key words or phrases that . A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES Ann Christian A. Francisco T-III Science City of Munoz Division I. an article or parts of an article. article. book chapter. PROCEDURE A. Teaching Materials: Curriculum Guide. More often than not. These essential ideas include the gist or main idea. summarize the content of an academic text CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-9 (Week 3-Days 1 and 2) II. the gist or the most significant or important part is what is given out to provide a background. Reference: Barrot J. Preparation  The teacher will show a short film. What would you do? Would you tell the story as it is from the opening scene to the end credits or would you simply talk about the essential parts of the movie? You’ll probably agree that the latter is the more practical choice and you are correct. (2016) Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students are expected to: A. useful information. SUBJECT MATTER A. Overhead Projector. Book.  Using only three sentences. B. Topic: Summarizing B. Laptop III. tell the plot of the story. and Sipacio P. Watch the video clip and make sure to note the details. What is summarizing? Summarizing is often used to determine the essential ideas in a book.

or in the end.  Write down ideas that are not stated in the text. 7. it can be done as well while reading a text. 2. Guidelines in Summarizing 1. Read a text and understand the meaning. 3. However. Clarify your purpose before you read. What is not summarizing? You are not summarizing when you  Write down everything  Write down ideas from the text word-for-word  Write down incoherent and irrelevant ideas. which can usually be found either at the beginning. Select and underline or circle the key ideas and phrases while reading: another strategy is to annotate the text. or  Write down a summary that has the same length or is longer than the original text. Use appropriate cohesive devices. 6. 4. . Summarizing is a skill because it helps you:  Deepen your understanding of the text  Learn to identify relevant information or key ideas  Combine details or examples that support the main idea/s  Concentrate on the gist or main idea and key words presented in the text. Do not stop reading until you understand the message conveyed by the author. 8.help you meet your reading purpose. Identify the connections of key ideas using a concept map. Summarizing is generally done after reading. Ensure that you do not copy a single sentence from the original text. in the middle. Write all the key ideas and phrases are in bullets. Combine sentences in a paragraph. 5. and  Capture the key ideas in the text and put them together clearly and concisely. List your ideas in sentences. Locate the gist or main idea of the text.

Compare your output with the original text. FORMATS IN SUMMARIZING 1. Record the details of the original text. 11. Use different formats to show variety in writing. 13. Refrain from adding comments about the text. 9.  The students will have a brainstorming and thinking analysis about the given citation to write their group summary.  The teacher will give some factual points to guide the students in the activity. Format your summary properly.  Presentation of outputs Text 1 . 12. Guided Practice  Students will be grouped into 4 and summarize the given academic texts. Author Heading Format 3. Date Heading Format C. Edit the draft of your summary. 10. Idea Heading Format 2.

Verjee. the students will choose a partner and summarize the given academic text. security and land. under the auspices of the regional organization ECOWAS has become a pioneer on the continent in terms of addressing regional challenges. Alexandre. extractives. This book seeks to identify key lessons in the dynamics of resilience against political violence and civil war. and the way in which they impact the countries of the sub region. It seeks to investigate key drivers of conflict and violence. Mogaka. Independent Practice Using their understanding about summarizing. regional imbalances. the fragility of political institutions and managing the competition for power. migration. drawn from countries such . Stephen This book seeks to critically examine the challenges of fragility and security in West Africa. Neelam. along with the factors of resilience.Text 2 D. The book explores how the sub region. Along with emerging threats and challenges. these include the challenge of youth inclusion. THE CHALLENGE OF STABILITY AND SECURITY IN WEST AFRICA Marc.

V. Maria wrote down the general and specific ideas of the text. and provides insights from the perspectives of academic and development practitioners. EVALUATION Write S if the statement describes good summarizing and N if not. it draws on knowledge and findings from a series of background papers written by leading experts.5 Spacing  1” margin on all sides  Short bond paper VI. __________ 3. ASSIGNMENT Choose your favorite book or movie and write a summary of its plot. content and attitude? . Thomas extracted the key ideas in the text. IV. Jenna simplified ideas. Sean added some of his related research to the information presented in the text. Sean copied everything from the book. __________10. Lalaine extended the message of the text and included some of her interpretations. Anita looked for keywords and phrases. __________ 6. Liberia. Alessa added her analysis and comments to the ideas of the author.  Century Gothic 12  1. REFLECTION What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up the lesson? What new or additional learning have you had other taking up this lesson in terms of skills. and Cote d’Ivoire that can be useful for countries around the world in the midst of similar situations. To add more information. __________ 8. __________ 2. __________ 4. Carmela concentrated on the important details. Make sure to follow the format below. Finally. __________ 9. __________ 7. __________ 1.as Sierra Leone. Rona revised the main idea. __________ 5.

For example. (2016) Communicate Today English for Academic and Professional Purposes for Senior High School. Francisco T-III Science City of Munoz Division I. SUBJECT MATTER A. Their purpose . and Sipacio P. or summary depends on the expectations of a particular discipline or field. Laptop III. Teaching Materials: Curriculum Guide. Topic: Writing a Précis/Abstract/Summary B. Whatever they may be called. Précis or Summary? Texts are classified as either abstract. are all the same. listened to or viewed. these texts aim to precisely condense a larger work to present only the key ideas. OBJECTIVE At the end of the lesson students are expected to: A. publishing companies. Teaching or Modeling What is an Abstract. précis. précis.Days 3 and 4) II. write five to six sentences that will encapsulate these key ideas. Reference: Barrot J. Preparation  A video clip will be shown about a current social issue (crisis in Marawi City)  With a partner. Then. or summary and sometimes as synopsis. They tell the audience the gist of what has been read. PROCEDURE A. Book. B. Note that the way we write an abstract. libraries and movie catalogs do not give away the actual content of the material when they write summaries of materials. determine the key ideas presented in the video. Write your answer on a sheet of paper. write a précis/abstract/summary of texts in various disciplines CS_EN11/12A-EAPP-Ia-c-13 (Week 3. Overhead Projector. pp 86-103 C. A SEMI-DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES Ann Christian A.

a 6. or summary. It does not use any citation.is simply to pique the interest of the target audience. Between these two types of abstracts. précis. Research papers on the other hand readily present the key ideas and major findings of the study. this is not a hard and fast rule. This kind of abstract is known as summative abstract. Read the text at least twice until you fully understand its content. or summary aim to present the key ideas of the text. 5. or Summary The structure of abstract. Reporting verbs are the most useful for this purpose. the general rule is to condense the information into around 15 percent of the original length of the text. 2.000-word research article for an academic journal may require only 200 to 250 words for its abstract. In terms of structure. State the author’s name. or Summary 1. 4. Use words or phrases indicating that you are presenting an abstract. In most cases. However. Structure of an Abstract. or summary depends on how it will be used. Précis. précis. a summative abstract is more preferred in an academic setting. These kinds of abstracts are called descriptive abstracts. does not include specific result statistics and is last to be written. For instance. précis. Précis. Annotate the text. 3. a research abstract generally follows the given allocation of words:  Rationale  Research Problems (around 10%)  Methodology (around 20%)  Major findings (around 40%)  Conclusion and Implications (around 10%) Guidelines in Writing an Abstract. Since an abstract. . Highlight the key ideas and phrases. the title of the passage and the main idea at the beginning sentence. the abstract of a research paper usually contains 150-300 words.

C. Use appropriate transitional devices to improve cohesion. you can write one main idea for multiple paragraphs particularly of a research paper. 9. Stick to the ideas presented in the text. Refrain from adding comments about the text. Write the main idea of each paragraph using your own words. 8. Combine the main ideas to form one paragraph. Compare your output with the original text to ensure accuracy. 7. In some cases. 10.6. Guided Practice Original Text . Never copy in verbatim a single sentence from the original text.

. Flow of ideas is smooth and easy to read. Proper incorporates the name of the author and title of the text at the start of the summary. ORGANIZATION (25%) Paper employs an organizational pattern and structure appropriate for the genre. You learn vocabulary through reading. or summary This paper is free from personal comments or opinions. Key ideas from the original text are reworded without compromising accuracy or content. It involves the transmission of messages using optic nerves. Proper uses appropriate length. STYLE (20%) Paper showcases the writer’s voice Proper uses a variety of sentence structures Paper eliminates sexist language Paper uses language appropriate to context Paper eliminates wordiness. there are people who can read higher that 280 words per minute. It has purpose. It is a two-way communication between readers and texts. Fluency means the number of words that you can read in a certain period of time. It is complex because it involves interactive and problem-solving processes. Rubric for an Abstract. It is the foundation of good writing and speaking. Cohesive devices are effectively used. Summarized Text According to Barrot (2013). Ideas are correctly placed which improves the paper’s organization. Reading can be developed through constant practice. Specific examples are excluded in the abstract. Reading also includes reading fluency. Précis. The average reading speech is 200 words per minute. reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding written symbols. However. or Summary VGE GE SE LE N 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENT (35%) Paper accurately reflects the content of the original text while incorporating only the key ideas. précis.

précis. 1. précis. Spelling. précis. Keep the following questions in mind while reading. or summary. and punctuations are correctly used. Word Choice is appropriate. Sentences are well-structured. read the following text before writing your own abstract. Legend: VGE – To a very great extent GE – To a great extent LE – To a little extent N.Not at all D.GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS (10%) Grammar is accurate. Who is the target reader? 3. Within 15 minutes. Assume the persona of a professor who is writing an abstract for a recently completed research paper. What is the purpose of the given text? 2. A. capitalization. or summary. Find a partner. or summary. Independent Practice Write an abstract. Has the writer achieved his/her purpose? . Title of text: ________________________________________________________________ Author of the text: _________________________________________________________ Purpose: __________________________________________________________________ Target Outputs: ___________________________________________________________ Audience: ________________________________________________________________ Writer’s Persona: __________________________________________________________ Tone/Formality: ___________________________________________________________ B. Complete the given information to come up with a writing situation for your abstract.

__________ 8. __________ 10.IV. Candace write the name of the author. Rachel highlights the key ideas in the original text while reading it. Mona reads her summary and compares it to the original text.com/file/view/Writing+an+abs tract_exercise. Emily reads the original text several times until she fully understands it.pdf VI. __________ 2. year of publication. __________ 4. __________ 1. __________ 6.wikispaces. content and attitude? . or summary and N if not. __________ 7. __________ 3. Ross writes in his summary how he feels after reading the text to be summarized. REFLECTION What were your misconceptions about the topic prior to taking up the lesson? What new or additional learning have you had other taking up this lesson in terms of skills. précis or summary by checking the website below:  https://yuwritingcenter. V. Janice presents her summary in bullet form. Joey copies in verbatim some of the sentences from the original text. Kip adds his own explanations to some of the key ideas he writes in his summary. ASSIGNMENT Hone your skills in writing an abstract. and title of the text at the beginning of the summary. Monica includes the specific examples that the original text while reading it. EVALUATION Write E if the statement shows an effective strategy in writing an abstract. précis. __________ 9. Gunther writes a research abstract without any major findings in it. __________ 5.


How do I get better at reading academic text? ›

  1. Establish your purpose for reading.
  2. Speculate about the author's purpose for writing.
  3. Review what you already know and want to learn about the topic (see the guides below)
  4. Preview the text to get an overview of its structure, looking at headings, figures, tables, glossary, etc.

Why is reading academic texts difficult? ›

Often, an academic text is challenging because new and specialised vocabulary, terms and jargon are used throughout. These can be very overwhelming, confusing and impede our understanding if we're unfamiliar with such vocabulary. So, we have to actively research such vocabulary.

What are the 5 examples of academic writing? ›

Common Types of Academic Writing
  • Essay.
  • Research paper.
  • Research proposal.
  • Thesis and dissertation.
  • Lab report.
  • Literature review,
  • Annotated bibliography.

What are the basic skills of reading academic texts? ›

Useful skills are: Understanding text structure/organisation. Understanding the text organisation will help you understand the writer's purpose and where to find other information. Understanding conceptual meaning, e.g. comparison, purpose, cause, effect.

How can I become a great reader? ›

Reading Strategies & Tips
  1. Schedule time to read. Reading is an easy thing to put off because there is often no exact due date. ...
  2. Set yourself up for success. Pick a location that is conducive to reading. ...
  3. Choose and use a specific reading strategy. ...
  4. Monitor your comprehension. ...
  5. Take notes as you read.

Is academic writing easy? ›

And that's the truth – academic writing is incredibly difficult. Anyone who seems able to dive into a manuscript without anxiety, stress-eating, procrasti-cleaning, or hand wringing is either lying or a survivor of an earlier, stress-ridden period in their writing lives that you missed seeing.

How can I read academic articles fast? ›

How to read a scientific paper quickly & efficiently
  1. Skim the abstract. Skimming the abstract first will allow you to get somewhat familiar with the topic at hand. ...
  2. Read the conclusion. ...
  3. After the conclusion, read the results. ...
  4. Read the methods section. ...
  5. Start this process over again with a different paper.
14 Sept 2017

What is academic text in EAPP? ›

An academic text is formal by avoiding casual or conversational language such as contractions or informal vocabulary. It uses appropriate language and tenses, and is clear, concise and balanced.

What are the 3 examples of academic writing? ›

The four main types of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, persuasive and critical. Each of these types of writing has specific language features and purposes. In many academic texts you will need to use more than one type.

What are the 6 types of academic writing? ›

Types of Academic Writing
  • Essay.
  • Research.
  • Summary -- Reaction Papers.
  • Journal.
  • Book Review.
  • Synthesis.
  • Review of the Literature.

What are the example of academic and non academic text? ›

Some examples are research papers, dissertations, and scholarly articles. Nonacademic writing is used in the mass public to inform, entertain or persuade the readers, personal, impressionistic, emotional, or subjective, with no rigid structure, informal and casual language.

Why do you think is it important for students to read academic text? ›

It helps students to interact with and make connections and judgements between texts, question contributions, and challenge inherent biases and arguments. In this way, academic reading is linked to the development of critical thinking.

What are the 5 basic reading skills? ›

There are five aspects to the process of reading: phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, reading comprehension and fluency. These five aspects work together to create the reading experience. As children learn to read they must develop skills in all five of these areas in order to become successful readers.

What are the 3 main type of reading strategies? ›

There are three different styles of reading academic texts: skimming, scanning, and in-depth reading. Each is used for a specific purpose.

What are the 7 habits of a good reader? ›

To improve students' reading comprehension, teachers should introduce the seven cognitive strategies of effective readers: activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, searching-selecting, summarizing, and visualizing-organizing.

What are the qualities of good reader? ›

Good Readers
  • Interact with text.
  • Have goals for reading.
  • Evaluate text for important ideas.
  • Note structure of text before reading.
  • Make predictions.
  • Contruct, revise, and question as they read.
  • Monitor their understanding as they read.
  • Read different kinds of text differently.

How do you read like a pro? ›

How to Speed Read Like a Pro
  1. Sit up straight. If you recline too far, your mind will think, relax, slow down.
  2. Let your fingers guide you. Place your index fingers on opposite sides of the line you're reading, and drag your fingers down as you read. ...
  3. Focus on the negative space. ...
  4. Skip the little guys.
9 Mar 2015

What are the 10 strategies in reading? ›

10 Effective Reading Strategies to Enhance your Students' Cognitive Abilities
  • Read with Expression. ...
  • Set a Purpose for Reading Strategies. ...
  • Schema. ...
  • Teaching Students to Read a Text. ...
  • Make Reading Fun. ...
  • Questions & Doubts. ...
  • Connect & Predict. ...
  • Reading Aloud.
8 Sept 2022

What are the five types of reading explain with examples? ›

Reading modes

Those are scanning, skimming eyes, extensive reading and intensive reading. Also, reading modes are classified by the degree of involvement — active and passive.

Why is reading is important? ›

Reading gets your mind working across different areas. For starters, it involves comprehension to process the words you read. Beyond that, you can use your analytical abilities, stimulate memories, and even broaden your imagination by reading words off a page.

Why is academic English hard? ›

Complex Vocabulary

However, the main difficulty for academic English lies with the specialized vocabulary often found in lectures and academic publications. Vocabulary in academic English is not only complex, but also very specific to each individual discipline (area of study).

How can I be a good academic writer essay? ›

Knowing the aspects of the writing process is an important part of becoming a better writer.
  1. Develop the Main Idea. This is the focus of your paper and the basis of your argument. ...
  2. Research. You should collect as many resources as possible. ...
  3. Audience. ...
  4. Organization. ...
  5. Have a Plan. ...
  6. Read and Write… ...
  7. Read, Edit, and Revise. ...
  8. Plagiarism.

Why is writing difficult for me? ›

Being out of practice or inconsistent with your writing schedule is a big reason for writing feeling difficult. When I wrote for 30 minutes each day, one of the biggest benefits I found was that writing got a lot easier. During the first week or two, thirty minutes would result in a few paragraphs.

How long should it take to read a scientific paper? ›

Do plan to spend anywhere from 3–6 hours to really digest a paper, remember they are very dense! Be ready and willing to make several passes through the paper, each time looking to extract different information and understanding.

How do you read a paper 3 pass? ›


Each pass accomplishes specific goals and builds upon the previous pass: The first pass gives you a general idea about the paper. The second pass lets you grasp the paper's content, but not its details. The third pass helps you understand the paper in depth.

How do you study academic articles? ›

Step-by-step instructions for reading a primary research article
  1. Begin by reading the introduction, not the abstract. ...
  2. Identify the BIG QUESTION. ...
  3. Summarize the background in five sentences or less. ...
  4. Identify the SPECIFIC QUESTION(S) ...
  5. Identify the approach. ...
  6. Now read the methods section.
9 May 2016

What is EAPP text structure? ›

It is a basic structure that consists of introduction, body and conclusion. (under three-part essay structure) These should be shorter than the body of the text. this presents the main point or theme of the paragraph.

What are the four types of text structure? ›

  • Text structures refer to the way authors organize information in text. Recognizing the underlying structure of texts can help students focus attention on key concepts and relationships, anticipate what is to come, and monitor their comprehension as they read.
  • • ...
  • Chronological, ...
  • • ...
  • Cause and. ...
  • • ...
  • Problem/

What is the example of academic text? ›

Examples of academic writing include book reviews, critique papers, essays, movie analysis, reports, research papers, etc.

What is academic writing answer? ›

Academic writing is a formal style of writing used in universities and scholarly publications. You'll encounter it in journal articles and books on academic topics, and you'll be expected to write your essays, research papers, and dissertation in academic style.

What is an example of academic? ›

A teacher or scholar at a college or university. The definition of academic is something or someone that is considered to be scholarly. An example of academic is what a teacher would write on the report card of a student who gets all A's.

What is good academic writing? ›

Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (usually), a clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice.

How is academic text written? ›

Academic texts are characterised by having a clear structure. On an general level, this means that the texts have an introduction, a main body and an end. Sometimes the shape of an hourglass is used to illustrate the basic structure of an academic text with introduction, main body and discussion/conclusion.

What are the 5 characteristics of non academic text? ›

Features of nonacademic texts:
  • Less formal.
  • Casual language.
  • Use any point of view.
  • Opinion-based.
  • Free of rigid structures.
  • On general topics.

Which is not example of an academic text? ›

Non academic writing focuses on lay audience or the mass public. These types of articles are mostly personal, impressionistic, emotional, or subjective in nature. It includes magazine articles, personal or business letters, novels, websites, text messages, etc. are some examples of non academic writing.

What are the 2 common structure in academic text? ›

The structure of your writing depends on the type of assignment, but two common structures used in academic writing are the three-part essay structure and the IMRaD structure. Even shorter essays that are not divided into titled sections follow such a structure. Longer texts may be further divided into subsections.

How can academic text affect your life as a student? ›

Answer: Academic texts affect your life as a student through experience, and reasoning behind your actions and objectives in life. Doing things without reason nor reference makes your doings unreasonable and without purpose.

What are the 10 importance of reading? ›

Reading is good for you because it improves your focus, memory, empathy, and communication skills. It can reduce stress, improve your mental health, and help you live longer. Reading also allows you to learn new things to help you succeed in your work and relationships.

What is the most important component of reading? ›

Reading fluency, including oral reading skills

Reading fluency is a critical factor necessary for reading comprehension. If children read out loud with speed, accuracy, and proper expression, they are more likely to comprehend and remember the material than if they read with difficulty and in an inefficient way.

What is the Big 5 in reading? ›

Reading is broken down into five main areas: ​phonemic awareness​, ​phonics​, ​fluency​, ​vocabulary​, and ​comprehension​.

What are the 5 most important and meaningful things you can do with your ability to read and write? ›

Here are 5 meaningful ways to do just that:
  • donate a book. Browse through your own stash of books and select a few which you can donate to a local library, schools or community centres.
  • donate your time. ...
  • donate money. ...
  • organise a book swap. ...
  • build awareness.
30 Aug 2022

What are the 7 reading skills? ›

The seven strategies of highly skilled readers include activating, summarizing, monitoring and clarifying, visualizing and organizing, searching and selecting, questioning, and inferring.

What are the 3 stages of the reading process? ›

These three phases are pre-reading, while-reading and after-reading phases. Each of them has its own important role. They are all necessary parts of a reading activity. In language classrooms, these phases have to be put in consideration in order to achieve to develop students' reading skills.

What is the 3 cueing system in reading? ›

The strategy is also referred to as “three-cueing,” for the three different sources of information that teachers tell students to use: 1) meaning drawn from context or pictures, 2) syntax, and 3) visual information, meaning letters or parts of words.

What are the 7 strategies of reading skills? ›

The seven strategies of highly skilled readers include activating, summarizing, monitoring and clarifying, visualizing and organizing, searching and selecting, questioning, and inferring.

Why is reading academic texts important? ›

It helps students to interact with and make connections and judgements between texts, question contributions, and challenge inherent biases and arguments. In this way, academic reading is linked to the development of critical thinking.

How can I manage the challenge of academic reading and writing? ›

Ways to manage this:

Prioritise reading the ones that are required before going to the lecture. Learn to skim read the headings and first sentence of each paragraph to help you decide which parts you are going to read in depth.

How do you read difficult text? ›

8 Strategies for Reading Difficult Material
  1. Scan. Before reading the material, it is necessary to learn some general information on the subject at hand. ...
  2. Repeat. For shorter reading assignments, try reading the material once and then sleep on it. ...
  3. Summarize. ...
  4. Use Other Senses. ...
  5. Get Active. ...
  6. Review. ...
  7. Look Up. ...
  8. Extra Help.
29 Jun 2011

What are the 7 habits of a good reader? ›

To improve students' reading comprehension, teachers should introduce the seven cognitive strategies of effective readers: activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, searching-selecting, summarizing, and visualizing-organizing.

What are the 3 main type of reading strategies? ›

There are three different styles of reading academic texts: skimming, scanning, and in-depth reading. Each is used for a specific purpose.

What are the 4 examples of academic text? ›

The four main types of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, persuasive and critical.

What is academic text example? ›

Examples of academic writing include book reviews, critique papers, essays, movie analysis, reports, research papers, etc.

What is academic text in EAPP? ›

An academic text is formal by avoiding casual or conversational language such as contractions or informal vocabulary. It uses appropriate language and tenses, and is clear, concise and balanced.

How do you solve reading problems? ›

Advice for specific learners
  1. Read carefully and deliberately. The SAT is not a race. ...
  2. Re-read for mistakes and content. ...
  3. Be patient with unfamiliar words. ...
  4. Try to avoid breaks during passages. ...
  5. Take notes. ...
  6. Trace your place. ...
  7. Mark the location of notes. ...
  8. Ask the reader to re-read.

What are the challenges that you experience in reading? ›

Comprehension Difficulties
  • confusion about the meaning of words and sentences.
  • inability to connect ideas in a passage.
  • omission of, or glossing over detail.
  • difficulty distinguishing significant information from minor details.
  • lack of concentration during reading.

What are the 10 strategies in reading? ›

10 Effective Reading Strategies to Enhance your Students' Cognitive Abilities
  • Read with Expression. ...
  • Set a Purpose for Reading Strategies. ...
  • Schema. ...
  • Teaching Students to Read a Text. ...
  • Make Reading Fun. ...
  • Questions & Doubts. ...
  • Connect & Predict. ...
  • Reading Aloud.
8 Sept 2022

How do you read and understand academic text? ›

  1. Read and understand the text carefully.
  2. Think about the purpose of the text. Ask what the author's purpose is in writing the text? ...
  3. Select the relevant information. ...
  4. Find the main ideas - what is important. ...
  5. Change the structure of the text. ...
  6. Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. ...
  7. Check your work.

How do you read silently? ›

You might do some general reading aloud to help your pronunciation and to help you hear the words and pair them with the sounds. Then, you might take a paragraph or a few sentences and study them closely. Look up all of the words that you do not know and try your hardest to understand what the sentences mean.

How do you read and understand effectively? ›

How to read effectively and critically
  1. On this page.
  2. Have a clear reading purpose.
  3. Choose what to read.
  4. Preview a text.
  5. Use different ways of reading.
  6. Ask critical questions of the text.
  7. Take notes of your reading.
  8. Connect multiple readings.

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